金属科学
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印度如何利用新冠肺炎大流行推动自由无人机政策
金属科学
金属科学

印度如何利用新冠肺炎大流行推动自由无人机政策

警察人员在斋浦尔期间的代表形象在锁上,徘徊在他们上面的无人机。照片:PTI.

以下是除了许可获得的外部揭露:解码Covid-19流行病的政治迪尼斯·c·夏尔马(Dinesh C. Sharma)著。这本书的电子版是可以在这里

在房屋外的检疫冲压和公开通知时,看起来有疑似感染的人的粗暴和侵犯患有感染的人,一些州政府采用了使用技术来实施锁定以及隔离和隔离指南。喀拉拉邦于4月20日成为第一个州,部署无人机或无人驾驶飞行器(无人机)在锁定期间进行监控。在一个名为Eagle Eye的项目下(偶然是美国宇航局的人工智能倡议的名称),州警察在国家部署了650个无人机,以监测锁定的实施。据说这是印度执法机构的第一个大规模的技术使用该技术。

喀拉拉邦警察无人机装有信标,警报器和扬声器,以吓跑人们飙升的锁定规范。图像被实时发射到警察控制室,以用于地面跟进行动。警察使用无人机镜头在他们发现无人机后立即制作人们跑步的人。有些人看到他们的面孔逃避鉴定。添加电影对话和歌曲的原声才能让视频有趣。在社交媒体处理州警察的这种短片发布了病毒。警察在马哈拉施特拉,古吉拉特邦,安得拉邦和卡纳塔克邦也用来强制执行锁定。Large fleets of drones were backed by an ‘internet of drones’ platform developed by a Pune-based startup FlytBase that allowed ‘seamless integration of intelligent fleets of drones with cloud-based applications.’ The start-up was funded by the central government’s Department of Science and Technology.

由于安全原因,2014年由民航(DGCA)的局长禁止在印度禁止在印度的平民用途。2018年12月放宽规则,要求无人驾驶制造商遵守“无许可,没有所有远程飞行员飞机系统(RPA)的规定”。These rules permitted operations of drones during daytime ‘visual line of sight.’ In the last week of April 2020, the Drone Committee of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) reviewed the use of drones in China and other countries during the pandemic and sought a change in the regulatory framework for civilian drones in India.

The panel recommended blanket exemption for the use of such drones for law enforcement, public safety and emergency response, besides use by ‘critical security agencies and enterprises.’ Such exemption, it said, should be for surveillance and lockdown enforcement for government authorities as well as security of ‘infrastructure critical to national requirements’ like monitoring oil and gas pipelines, monitoring of industrial premises, surveying and mapping. The report highlighted examples of Kerala and press reports from other countries where drones were already in use. The Drone Committee was chaired by Rajan Luthra, Head of Special Projects in the Chairman’s Office at Reliance Industries.

2020年5月的第一周,民航和DGCA放松规则使用无人机和宣布建立一个门户网站——政府授权救援使用无人机(GARUD)为政府机构提供“有条件的豁免”pandemic-related无人机使用。这些豁免适用于政府机构使用遥控飞机进行与COVID-19相关的空中监视、空中摄影和公开公告。政府机构被允许雇用第三方RPA服务提供商的服务。2020年6月,民航部发布了《无人机系统规则草案》,进一步放开了无人机的进口、制造和所有权,以及无人机港口的发展。

揭露
Dinesh C. Sharma.
2011年4月的编辑厂

在锁定期间,无人机不仅用于执法,还用于监测公民的体温,药物的紧急用品和喷雾消毒剂。The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare released guidelines for environmental cleaning and decontamination of public places that were considered ‘risk-prone areas for local spread of the virus.’ Local authorities in cities and towns undertook activities to disinfect bus and railway stations, streets, markets, hospital premises, banks etc. Some of them employed drones to carry the disinfectant and spray in public places. In Varanasi – the parliamentary constituency of the prime minister – civic authorities hired services of a Chennai-based firm, Garuda Aerospace Private Limited, to spray sanitiser under the ‘smart city mission.’ The company claimed that its ‘Corona-Killer’ drones could be used to spray disinfectants on buildings up to 450 feet in height.

随着公司团队的无人机在印度航空公司的航空公司中乘坐钦奈空中,用于在城市的热点和遏制区喷洒操作。还在孤立住宅,检疫区和庇护所进行喷涂。该过程涉及无人机团队的视觉调查来映射地形和建筑物,从飞行路径中粉化,用“由1%次氯酸钠组成的化学溶液”和飞行无人机,用于同时通过其四个喷嘴同时喷洒静止器。'专门用于喷洒农药用于农业用药的无人机目前用于在Covid-19大流行情况下喷洒隔离区域和隔离病房的消毒液,宣布官方新闻稿。类似的消毒活动是在昌迪加尔进行的。Karimnagar Municipal公司在Telangana部署了一家私营公司的寄生机,Marut无人机,用于在Mukarampur的地方喷洒消毒剂,其中十个印度尼西亚人和一位当地测试了Covid-19的阳性。

Government agencies justified the use of drones arguing that ‘disinfecting and sanitising India’s vast area of 3.28 million square kilometres to prevent the spread of Covid-19 is a huge challenge.’ It involves spraying disinfectants at all crowded locations, marketplaces, metro stations, airports, schools, colleges, tall buildings, hospitals and government offices. ‘It is a huge task by current public workers undertaking a manual spraying process approach. But by employing DaaS (Drones as a Service) ecosystem to accomplish this task, the sanitisation operations can be achieved in a quarter of the time.’ Spraying disinfectant using drones was also linked to the government’s flagship sanitation programme: ‘drone-based Swacch Bharat campaign to Clean India regularly will prevent the spread of COVID-19, future pandemics and communicable diseases arising due to unhygienic conditions.’

另一个有争议的技术在锁定期间晋升的政府机构是“消毒人行道”或“消毒隧道” - 一种覆盖的途径,其中消毒剂被喷洒,因为一只贯穿它。The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) which developed disinfection walkways claimed it as ‘the most comprehensive disinfection delivery system’ that ensured ‘maximum target coverage with minimum shadow areas of an individual.’ It was recommended for use at isolation and quarantine centres, entry points of mass transit systems and medical centres. A similar walkway was developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute and was duly inaugurated by the Minister of State for Agriculture Kailash Choudhary. In this tunnel, ‘Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC) are used at a concentration of 0.045%, which is recommended by the Health Department,’ the council claimed.

全国各地的不同城市安装了数百个消毒隧道。它们中的大多数使用次氯酸钠以不同的浓度,并且时间为5到二十秒。尽管顾问是顾问,消毒剂是在物理表面上使用而不是人体,并且警告喷洒氯或体内的酒精不会杀死病毒。一群抵达北方邦北方的阿尔利尔的移民被挤出并用警察顽固的消毒剂喷雾。

还阅读:PSA的新Covid咨询并没有说什么是重要的

As media reports highlighted the use of chemicals to ‘disinfect humans’ by direct spraying or through so-called tunnels and walkways, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare issued an advisory saying ‘chemical disinfectants are recommended for cleaning and disinfection only of frequently touched areas and surfaces by those who are suspected or confirmed to have COVID-19,’ and that ‘spraying of individuals or groups is not recommended under any circumstances. Spraying an individual or group with chemical disinfectants is physically and psychologically harmful.’ The Ministry said “even if a person is potentially exposed to the COVID-19 virus, spraying the external part of the body does not kill the virus that has entered your body. There is no scientific evidence to suggest that they are effective even in disinfecting the outer clothing/body effectively.” Besides irritating eyes, skin and even nausea and vomiting, spraying of chemicals ‘may lead to a false sense of disinfection and safety and hamper public observance to hand washing and social distancing measures.’

不同城市用无人机对公共场所和建筑物进行空气消毒也没有科学依据。写在医学杂志上柳叶叶犬传染病2020年3月5日,科学家指出,“虽然COVID-19通过空气传播,但城市和社区的空气消毒对疾病控制并不有效,需要停止。”他们说,向天空、道路、车辆和人员喷洒消毒剂和酒精的普遍做法毫无价值;此外,大量的酒精和消毒剂可能对人体有害,应该避免使用。”

因此,在建筑物,街道,市场和人民上使用无人机,消毒隧道和地面喷洒的消毒剂,没有任何科学的基础。可用证据指出这种喷洒对人类健康的有害影响。

除了喷雾消毒剂外,将无人机压入服务中以测量人的体温,以及在某些情况下,根据“社会疏散”指南,检测两个人之间的距离。升高的体温或轻度发烧是Covid-19的几种症状。由于它可以用温度计轻松测量,因此在公共场所的入口点的热器件中检查体温在大流行期间变得普遍。还建议了定期监测“家庭检疫”中的温度。

在早期的流行病中,热面或红外摄像机在机场安装在乘客的热筛选。在中国,将类似的相机附着在公共场所和住宅综合物中的人员温度筛选,以检测潜在的病人或感染者。在新德里使用类似的技术,当地当局声称他们可以在他们站在阳台和屋顶上发现有发烧的人。在国民资本中使用的'电晕作战'无人机也配备了夜视相机。Marut Drones声称其多用途无人机可用于温度检查。一家专业从事人群控制和监控体温的无人机公司向班加罗尔几个地区提供服务。关于无人机的FICCI报告提到了中国,沙特阿拉伯,约旦,以色列和保加利亚的类似用途。据报道,澳大利亚开发的无人机也可以检测“咳嗽,打喷嚏,心脏和呼吸率”。

然而,无人机的这种使用引发了科学、道德和隐私方面的担忧。专家指出,安装在无人机上的产热摄像头无法提供地面上个人的准确温度读数。2019年瑞典研究人员的一项研究报告称,受风和温度变化等环境因素影响,这种相机的精确度为正负5度,这使得它们无法检测人体的微小变化。此外,这种技术的使用侵犯了人们的隐私。这项技术是在印度使用的,印度没有单独的隐私法,无人机的使用指南没有提到任何程序保障,只是说“无人机不应侵犯个人隐私或财产。”

提交人列出了本书中本摘要中提出的索赔的提及;他们在这里被省略了。

Dinesh C. Sharma.是一个专栏作家和作者以新德里为基础。

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